ABUSHIRI AND BWANA HERI RESISTANCE 

This was African reaction along the coastal region where rich Arabs and local merchants had invested in coconut and cereal plantations in a large scale as well as trade activities. These plantation activities depended much on the interior, but the German company suppressed slave trade, hence affected the supply of labour to plantations. This event threatened the Arabs and, local merchant plantation owners. In 1888" the company agents imposed taxes and began to collect it from all people including feudal lords and rich merchants.


The coastal African resistance was led by Abushiri bin Salumel Hathi of Pangani. He organized his force and began to fight in August 1888, when the German company officials established themselves and hoisted the German flag in all the major coastal towns. In other cases, they opposed mosques and began to regulate the trade along caravan routes. The fighting extended to many coastal areas, thus other coastal people in Bagamoyo also joined the Abushiri's force against Germans.


The Abushiri resistance became so stiff that, the British joined the German forces by utilizing their naval forces, which had been used to suppress slave trade in the Indian Ocean, In order to make effective suppression, the German Chancellor sent major Hermann Von Wissman, a soldier and an, explorer with experience in different East African areas, He commanded German forces and recruited Mercenaries with the aim of' employing this force to crush the Abushiri uprising. These mercenaries comprised 600 Sudanese, 20 Turkish police, 400 Zulus, 21 officers and some soldier's from Tanganyika.


Starting from May, 1889, the German forces, under Major Von Wissman, were suppressing the Abushiri and regained most of the coastal towns within a few months: Finally, the leaders of this resistance were weakened, thus failing to co-ordinate their attacks. They faced strong German counter-attack. Abushiri fled to Mpwapwa in the Interior but he was weakened by Major Von Wissmans attack when German forces attacked Mpwapwa. Abushiri’s efforts were also affected by a person known as Magaya-a Jumbe orvillage headman in Usagara who betrayed him to the Germans. At the end Abushiri was captured and publicly hanged on 15th December, 1889.


Another coastal resistance was led by Bwana Heri of Uzigua, who fought against German forces since January 1889, when the German forces captured Saadani. Bwana Heri escaped to the interior where he built a fortress and staged a strong resistance against German forces until April 1890. Later on, Bwana Heri surrendered and ran away. After suppressing Abushiri and Bwana Heri the German forces faced another strong resistance in the southern coastal areas of Tanganyika. This was led by Hassani Bin Omari Makunganya of Kilwa. He organized and led a strong attack against German fortress in Kilwa, but he was defeated by the German forces. After his defeat, Hassan bin Omari fled to the inland where he organized another attack. However, the Germans realized his plan and pre-empted it.


Finally, Hassan bin Omari Makunganya was captured and hanged on a mango tree in Kilwa Kivinje, in May 1890. Since then, the mango tree was used by Germans for hanging all African victims publicly so as to threaten and warn Africans not to engage in further revolts and alert those who disobeyed' the government orders. The coastal active resistance against Germans was brought to an end by the defeat and hangings of Omari bin Hassan Makunganya.