Between 1945 and 1949, several protests and uprisings were organized especially in Uganda’s towns like Kampala. These were mainly in opposition to the monopoly of Asians in the cash crop trade, land alienation among other grievances.
Such action resulted into formation of earlier political associations such:-
Bataka party (1946)
Abaganda Abakopi and Uganda African Farmers’ Union (1947)
Buganda African Motors Driver Union(BANU)
Although all these parties were silenced one by one by the colonialists, and their leaders arrested, the message of resistance and desire for independence had been expressed already.
The Kabaka crisis of 1953 -55.
Following the British introduction of the idea of the East African Federation Kabaka Mutesa II decided to mobilize the Baganda to reject the Federation. He also went ahead to demand for the independence of Buganda alone.
This prompted the British colonial governor Andrew Cohen to deport him into Britain on the 30 Nov 1953.
Causes of the crisis
The idea of the East African federation led to the crisis. The Baganda feared that they might loose their land in the federation as had happened in Kenya.
Mutesa I‘s failure to cooperate with the colonial administrators encouraged the crisis. According to the 1900 agreement, the Kabaka was expected to work (cooperate) with the colonial administration in areas of tax collection, law and order e.t.c.
Mutesa’s demand for Buganda’s independence also led to the crisis.
Kabaka Mutesa’s desire to adjust some terms of the Buganda agreement led to the crisis. Kabaka hated the clauses that limited his authority in Buganda.
The rising sense of superiority among the Baganda encouraged the crisis under Mutesa I. Buganda increasingly proud of themselves that decided to reduce cooperation with the colonialist.
Withdraw of support from the Kabaka by the Lukiiko also encouraged the crisis.
The transfer by the colonial governor of the nomination of Buganda’s representatives to the Legico (Legislative council). This decision to give powers to the Lukiiko to nominate representative to the legico provoked Mutesa II much.
The religious conflicts with in Buganda also increased the tension. The Catholics conflicted with the Protestants and Christians combined against Muslims. This drew in the colonial administration to take sides.
The new political parties such as Uganda National congress (1952) violently opposed the East Africa Federation idea. This further promoted the government to exile the king.