European colonization was met with different reaction by Africans.

• While some resisted like the Mandika. Banyoro, Ali Bin Ghandalim of Algeria, Menelik of Ethiopia, Lubengula of the Ndebele, Mwanga of Buganda among others.

• Others collaborated like the Buganda. Fante of West Africa, Shona among others.

• Then others reacted indifferently i.e. neither resisted nor collaborated like the Ankole of Uganda.

Below are the reasons for varied responses;

I. Missionary influence. Societies that had been influenced by missionary activities like: Buganda, Amagoche Yao, Southern Nigeria, collaborated, while those not affected by Christianity resisted like Northern Nigeria, Arnaehinga Yao, Algeria among others.

2.The economic status of African societies. economically well off societies like Bunyoro, Ethiopia under Menelik, Mandika of Samoure Toure, while poor societies collaborated or were passive 1ike Ankole.

3. Military status, militarily strong societies Bunyoro. Nandi. Ndebele.

Asante, and Mandika saw no reason of collaborating and so resisted while militarily while societies like Fante collaborated.

4. Altitude of' the invaders towards the invaded, African societies that were believed to be host.ile were harshly approached by colonialists and therefore had no option but to resist such as the Nandi, Bunyoro, and Mandika while hospitable societies like Buganda were well approached and so collaborated.

5. Previous experience with the Europeans societies which had been defeated by explorers and missionaries before resisted like Bunyoro and those once defeated collaborated.

6. The degree of political organiza tion of the societies. Most of the centralized states resisted because they had nationalism while decentralized societies collaborated because they had loose nationalism.

7. Attitude of the African leaders themselves. Some had inferiority complex e.g. chief Girere was quoted to have said that "He who makes powder wins the battle "that meant that he could not stage any serious resistance to those with guns hence collaborated, yet Abushiri said: We all swear in the name of Allah not to rest until we have driven out the Germans…….. thus resisted.

8. Attachment to African traditional religion, societies which had strong attachment to their religions resisted e.g. Nehende of the Shona, Temne- Mende used the Pore-cult and Shona- Ndebele used the Omwari and Snake cult. However the reverse was true for those that had no strong attachment to African traditional religions.

9. Presence of Islam, areas which had experienced Islam resisted and the reverse is true e.g. the Amachinga Yao (Moslems) resisted, while the Amagoche Yao collaborated.

10. Strength of the whites, Europeans who were very strong used their strength to make Africans collaborate and those which were weak were resisted e.g. Ali Bin Ghandalim of Algeria defeated the French; Menelik defeated the Italians at Adowa.

11. Nature of the colonialists, those who were hostile faced resistance while those who were hospitable e.g. Lugard were welcomed thus collaboration in Buganda yet the harsh Carl peters in Tanganyika was resisted.

12. Colonial administration policies; the British indirect rule policy that did not directly attack traditional institutions attracted collaboration, while the German direct rule policy attracted resistance

13. Natural calamities. societies that were hit and weakened by natural calamities were forced to collaborate like the Masai, while societies with strong economies like the Nandi still resisted amidst calamities.

14. Presence of succession disputes, sons of the dicing or aging chiefs/ kings always rivaled for the throne. In the process the weak ones collaborated e.g. among the Masai Laibpp Lenana collaborated while Sendeyo who felt strong resisted.

15. Presence of slave trade activities, victims of slave trade activities collaborate like Mukonde and Sikaso in West Africa yet beneficiaries resisted e.g. King Geko of Dahomey, Mlozi of'Malawi. and Msiri in Eastern Congo.

16. What should be realized though is that all Africans had the same intentions i.e. to preserve their independence. Those who resisted felt it was the best option and so those who collaborated.

17. However the end result is that they all lost their independence to colonialists.