Having lost the war, Germany surrendered all her colonies including Tanganyika to the League of Nations. The League mandated Britain to administer the area on her behalf. Britain carried out a number of reforms in Tanganyika.
First and foremost, a new and the first British governor, Sir Horace Byatt was appointed. He was to be assisted by four members of the executive.
In his administration, Byatt retained the Jumbes, Akidas and generally the whole German administration. The major British concern was now to revive the badly damaged economy.
Later, he was accused of failing to put Tanganyika on a serious recovery track and mismanaging the economy and thus replaced by a new governor Donald Cameron in 1925
Cameron embarked on developing Tanganyika. First he instituted indirect rule and closed the gap between people and government (the gap had been created by the Germans)
He also established the Native Authority Ordinance in 1926 and set up Legislative councils on which Africans were also represented.
Africans were empowered to collect taxes, administer justice and carry out some administrative duties. There were secretaries for native affairs that supervised the system.
In 1926, the Tanganyika Legislative council was established by Cameron comprising of thirteen official and seven unofficial members.
However, Cameron frustrated the Africans by excluding them from the council yet the settlers. were included. They (Africans) were left to participate in politics at the lower level.
This later provoked the young Mission educated people to rise against colonial rule.
The British settlers found it difficult to get labour and when they obtained it, it was very expensive. The government had to come in and fix wages so as to protect Africans,
Taxation was introduced in Tanganyika. The hut and poll taxes were introduced in 1923, hereby forcing the Africans to grow cash crops in order to raise money to pay these taxes.
In order to win their support, Cameron gave the Africans land that previously belonged to the Settlers . The Europeans were on the other hand denied chance of buying land for estates. Although this annoyed the Settlers, Africans who had no land were now able to get it.
He also encouraged Africans to grow cash crops on their own shambas so as to improve their standards of living. The Chagga grew Arabica coffee on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro and the tribes in Bukoba grew Robusta coffee. Other crops grown included cotton and bananas.
Transport was developed. Road and railway networks were built and others extended to productive areas. Such lines included the Tabora - Mwanza line and the Dar es Salaam - Kagoma line that had been destroyed by the retreating German forces was repaired.
Trade developed as a result of the developed transport network. The central railway line which connected Tanganyika to Belgian Congo was developed. People from the two colonies were now to trade together.
The mining industry too developed at Geita in 1922. In Musoma and Mwanza districts, gold deposits were exploited. Gold export therefore increased, earning Tanganyika over £1000, 000 annually. The export of gold now rivalled Sisal.
The British did not neglect Education. In response to the Phelps - Stokes commission, government started building more schools and increased its expenditure on education and by 1928; it had risen to £ 80,000. In 1925, a Department of Education was established.
Government earnings increased. By 1930, over £ 750,000 was being collected from taxes. This improved government provision of social services and thus improved people's standards
Ex - servicemen were resettled and their problems looked into. Many were given land that previously belonged to the White settlers.
Slave trade that persisted in Tanganyika was finally brought to an end in 1922.
Political parties were formed by the elite who had acquired education from Mission schools. The Tanganyika African Association (TAA) was formed in 1919. This was in 1954 reorganized and transformed into Tanganyika African National Union (TANU).