•The MajiMaji rebellion was anti colonial struggle staged by the people of'southem.Tanganyika against the Germany harsh colonial rule.

• It involved people like the Matumbi, Pogoro, Ngindo, Ngoni, Zaramo and Benzi.

•It was engineered by Chief Kinj ikitire Ngware who prophesized Germany defeat as long as Africans were protected by his magic water (Maji).

Causes of the rebellion.

1. The harsh and rigid Germany administration, they were brutal and in human e.g. the district commissioner of Kilimanjaro district was nick named “Mukono wa darnu.

2. The influence of traditional religion, Prophet Kinjikitile Ngwale claimed to possess magic water "Maji" that was stronger than the German weapons. This encouraged people to revolt.

3. Land alienation policy through which the Germans grabbedAfric.ans land and gave it to white settlers, also led to the rebellion.

4. The Germans immoral acts like raping African women especially among the N gindo whose wives and daughters were being disgraced by rapists.

5. The revolt was a nationalistic struggle intended to regain the political and cultural independence of the people of Tanganyika.

6. The Germany policy of forcing Africans to offer free and forced labour on whites plantations and public works, each mature person was supposed to offer free labour for 28 days annually. This did not please the Africans either.

7. The Europeans missionary activity of undermining and degrading Africa cultures and customs e.g. they preached against polygamy and the traditional


8. The harshness of the cotton scheme introduced by the Germans, it led to African loss of land, forced Africans to offer free labour on plantations amidst very poor conditions. To worsen matters the crop did not yield any tangible output due to poor soils.

9. The brutality and in human character of the German foreign assistants. The Akidas and the Jumbes, they were oppressive, exploitative and brutal.

10. The people of Tanganyika hated the harsh taxes and their poor way of collection. Masses were forced to pay taxes and those who failed were flogged, imprisoned or had their property confiscated.

11. Some Africans like the Ngoni participated in the rebellion as way of revenging against the Germans over the Boma massacres of l897 in which Africans traditional religious and political leaders were executed.

12. The mal-administration of the Germany colonial leaders, they were very brutal e.g. Carl Peters is reported to have castrated a Youngman who had secretly visited his Girl friend whom they had kidnapped.

13. The influenced of the charismatic and able leadership people like Kinjikitire Ngwale and Abdallah Mpanda.

Effects of the Rebellion.

1. The Germans administration was Compelled introduce a number of reforms e.g. German settlers who mistreated Africans were punished.

2. Africans lost confidence in their traditional religion and its leaders like Kinjikitire due to failure of the ancestral spirits to protect them from whites' bullets.

3. Africans also learnt a lesson that Europeans were strong and any future struggle required serious preparation and organization.

4. The unpopular Akidas and Jumbes were with drawn and replaced by western educated young men from mission schools.

5. There was destruction of agricultural fields and this caused great farrBne that led to more suffering of Africans.

6. Ngorii long prestige in military warfare as a strong power was diminished.

7. The war laid foundation for future nationaIism of the Tanganyika since various tribes participated in the struggle.

8. There was displacement of families and settlements.

9. The end of the rebellion enabled the Germans to setup some social Infrastructures like roads, railways and telephone lines.

10. Epidemics and other diseases emerged due to the fact that people were,now staying in forests after their homes had been destroyed.