THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE NANDI RESISTANCE AGAINST BRITISH COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA 1890 AND 1905

The Nandi resistance against the British began in 1895 up to 1906 when they killed a British trader Peter west and his assistants, who were trespassing Nandi territory,

The struggle lasted for eleven years.

Below are the causes/reasons for the resistance

1. The influence of the Nandi pride, the Nandi had succeeded in raids over neighbors and believed that they were superior. They would therefore not allow whites to interfere with their way of living.

2. Land problem 111 1905, there was an outbreak of raiding and murder leading to military expedition against the Nandi. There was need to drive the Nandi from the areas near the railway line to avoid their disruption of the construction work. This was unacceptable to the Nandi.

3. Desire by the Nandi to remain independent

4. The British preaching of their superiority was a serious violation of Nandi integrity by foreigners who had to be repulsed.

5. The whites’ action of killing the Nandi worriers around Guasa Musa camp in 1895. The incident provoked the Nandi who raided the camps of whites murdering two white men. This incident the revolt.

6. Effect of the peace treaty of Kipture which stipulated the Nandi to live in reserves by 1906 and that all those Nandi who had killed Europeans were to be handed over to the authority. The Nandi refused to adhere to the directive, hence righting.

7. The belief that Europeans were devils because of their clothes and colour. The thinking was reinforced by the sound made by Europeans guns that were remiscent (similar) to those made Nandi women when they hit their skin clothes during tribal dance, thus Europeans were thought to be women and had to be expelled from Nandi land.

8. The influence of Kimunyole’s prophecy about the big snake that would come from the Indian Ocean through Nandi land and this turned onto is the Uganda railway which infuriated the Nandi in to resisting the whites.

9. Revival of the Orkoiyotship among the Nandi.

10. Leadership provided by Orkoyot Koitale.

11. Punitive expeditions applied by the British against the Nandi which failed and encouraged the Nandi into more resistance.

12. The militant nature of the Nandi people.

13. Era of scramble and partition of African societies and their response made the Nandi to resist.

14. Penetration of the white traders into Nandi land after the construction of the railway.

15. The Masai collaboration with the British annoyed the Nandi.
16.  The Nandi were opposed the construction of the railway through their land.   
17. The Nandi also hated the British policy of abolishing their trade in ivory and slaves and replaced with legitimate trade controlled by whites. Inspiration from oilier African risings.

Effects of the Nandi Resistance
1. The war delayed the construction of the Uganda railway by killing the railway workers.
2. It led to widespread famine as a result of the scotched earth policy applied by the British and length of the war.
3. It led to the death of many people about 90 British soldiers were killed while the Nandi lost very many worriers, civilians and religious leaders like Maatis and Koitale
4.  There was also the displacement of the Nandi. The Nandi were pushed to reserves to create room for the white settlers.                                                                
5.    The British confiscated 10,308 cattle, 1OOO goats and many sheep of the Nandi. This affected their wealth and source of livelihood.
6. There was land alienation of the Nandi land. The Nandi were pushed to reserves and their land was taken by foreign settlers.
7. Family ties were destroyed during the time of the war since many Nandi shifted to different directions and many people of different families would be put in different reserve camps.
8. It laid foundation for continued enmity between the Nandi and the British collaborators, the Masai, Luo.
9. The Nandi lost their prominence in the region as the most strong and fearless society.
10. The war ruined the British treasury since they spent a lot of money in paying mercenaries and their own troops and in purchasing fire arms.
11.  It led to eventual colonization of Nandi land and loss of their independence    following the surrendering and death of Okoiyot Koitale.
12.  The end of the war resulted in to influx of many white settlers and Kenya was declared a British protectorate.
13. Imperial forces .were stationed in Nandi land permanently.