THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE IN TANGANYIKA

The Stages I

The road to independence in Tanganyika was slower, peaceful and steady compared to Uganda and

Kenya.

In 1945, the first two Africans to the Legislative council (Legco) were elected. The following year (1946) the number was increased from two to three.

Between 1947 and 1951, African representation on both the Legislative and the Executive councils rose

considerably.

In 1951, membership to the Legislative council comprised of fifteen official members and the unofficial members were seven Europeans, four Africans and three Asians. .<

The Executive council consisted of eight official members and the unofficial members comprised of three Europeans, one Asian and one African.

In 1953, changes were made. The governor ceased presiding over the Legislative council and a Speaker

I was appointed to do so.

The same year, Dr. Julius Nyerere was elected as the President of the Tanzania African Association

(TAA)

Still the same year, the Local government ordinance was passed. It provided for the removal of traditional authority and their replacement by elected councils.

By 1954, there were three Africans, two Europeans and two Asians on the Legislative council's unofficial wing.

On 7th July 1954 at Dar es Salaam, the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was formed to replace the Tanganyika African Association (T AA).

In 1954, a UN mission was sent to Tanganyika. It listened to TANU's proposals for self - rule and was greatly impressed by Nyerere's determination to see Tanganyika free. It recommended a fixed timetable for her independence.

In 1955, Dr. Julius K. Nyerere visited the United Nations trusteeship committee to demand for independence.

The same year (1955), the first elections to the Legco were held. The assembly was made up of thirty- one officials, nine elected unofficial members of each race and one nominated member of each race.

In 1956, the United Tanganyika Party (UTP) was formed by those who were opposed to TANU's

program. It advocated for a multi - racial government.

It (UTP) was composed of mainly members of the Legco. These two parties bitterly attacked each other.

In 1957, Dr. Julius K. Nyerere was appointed President of the Legco in a bid to reconcile TANU and the government - leaning UTP?

But he did not stay on the Legco for long. After a few months, he resigned due to disagreements over constitutional issues.

In September 1958, elections to the Legislative council were organized; TANU supported candidates of different races and in every area none of its members lost.

The United Tanganyika Party (UTP) suffered a resounding defeat at the polls, forcing its founders to disband it. This enhanced TANU's prestige and credibility.

In July 1958, Sir Richard Turnbull arrived on the political scene of Tanganyika as the new governor. He came with instructions to speed up constitutional advance in Tanganyika (Britain was under pressure from the UN to decolonise all her colonies).

Quickly, the governor won himself the confidence of many Africans including Dr Julius Nyerere with

whom they became close friends and even discussed government problems.

In 1959, a committee was appointed, chaired by Sir Richard Ramage to decide on further constitutional changes. It recommended that the Legislative council should have a large elected African majority, but still reserve some seats for other races.

It also recommended that the executive council should be replaced by a council of elected ministers. This was done in July 1959 (the same year) with five T ANU representatives.

In August 1960, elections were organized. Tanganyikans, who were literate and those with an income of £75 a year, were the ones to vote the new Legislative council. It comprised of seventy-one' seats for Africans, ten for the Europeans and eleven for the Asians.

Of the seventy-one, TANU won seventy seats promising Tanganyikans independence the following year, safeguarding their interests and introducing complete adult voting.

On 1st May 1961, Tanganyika gained internal self-rule. Dr. Julius Nyerere became the Prime minister, the council of ministers became the cabinet and the Legislative council became the parliament.

In December 1961, total independence was achieved with Nyerere as the first President. There was a lot of joy and jubilation at the newly - opened Dar es Salaam stadium. Over 800,000 people witnessed the occasion.

In 1962, Tanganyika became a republic and 10 1964, the mainland (Tanganyika) was united with Zanzibar.

Nyerere retained the Presidency and Sheik Obedi Karume from Zanzibar became the Vice President.