STUDENT NO: 2000722678

REG NUMBER: 20/U/22678

Defence mechanisms e primary function of defense mechanism is temporary to reduce anxiety caused by conflict among the three elements of personality namely the Id, ego and super ego.

The following are the 10 unique aspects of Frued's defense mechanisms employed by the teachers in my community who have been hesitant to take the covid-19 vaccine.

Reaction formation. This involves a person going beyond denial and behaves in the opposite way to which he or she thinks or feels. In this period of covid-19 some teachers have totally refused to go for vaccination because of some rumours that the vaccine cause harm to their bodies but put on masks to behave as if they are controlling the spread of covid-19.

Rationalization This refers to giving your self a false excuse about an anxiety. In relation to to Teachers hesitancy to covid-19 vaccination, some are using an excuse that vaccines aren't in the hospitals yet they are there and end up not going for vaccination.

Projection. Some people who have been vaccinated have told teachers that the got paralyzed after being vaccinated, so some teachers have also taken this as an excuse of fearing to be paralyzed hence ending up not going for vaccination.

Denial. It refers to refusal consciously acknowledge or believe the existence of a danger. Some teachers have totally refused to go for vaccination depending on a fact that covid-19 doesn't exist in Uganda that the country just want support from foreign countries.

Fantasy is also another aspect used by teachers to hesitate to go for covid-19 vaccination. It involves satisfying unsatisfied desires through imaginary achievements. In relation to this, some teachers have a believe that covid-19 will one day be controlled thus ending up not going for vaccination.

Displacement also employed by some teachers to hesitate against covid-19 vaccination. This involves the redirecting of an impulse into a powerless substitute target and that target can be a person or an object that can ac as a symbolic substitute. Some teachers have a believe that if others fellow teachers and students have been vaccinated, for them they won't get covid-19 thus end up not going for vaccination.

Identification also employed by the teachers to hesitate against covid-19 vaccination. It involves the victim adopting the behavior of a person who is more powerful than them. Some Teachers have hesitated to go for vaccination because the see other education stake holders at higher ranks not vaccinated thus they take as a good action and adopt the behaviors of not going for vaccination from other education stake holders.

Compensation. Some teachers during this period of the pandemic have resorted to doing businesses due to failure of opening schools and they have become successful thus ending up not going for vaccination since they know have already achieved in businesses and may not go back to school if vaccination is one of the requirements.

Repression. This involves exclusion from the conscious awareness of a painful, unpleasant or undesirable event. Some teachers pretend that they aren't aware of the on going covid-19 vaccination in the health centers and end up not being vaccinated.

1b). The following are the communication accredits that I will consider in that I will consider when designing an extensive positive mindset change campaign for the demure of teachers.

High level of the credibility of the source of information. The communicator should be believed in or trusted so as the teacher's mind set can be changed. For example if teachers are sensitised by a worker from world health organization to go for vaccination, they can easily accept and go for vaccination.

High importance levels in the apparent intentions of the communicator. Teachers are more likely to change their bad attitude towards vaccination when the person communicating to them to go for vaccination is not trying to persuade them for his or her selfish needs or ends. For example if his interest is not vaccinating very many people so as to even get aid from foreign countries for his benefits.

High level of the attractiveness of the communicator. A communicator who presents an attractive physical appearance and who seem highly similar to Teachers views is likely to change their negative mind set to a positive one. For example if the communicator himself is vaccinated teachers can also be convinced to go for vaccination.

High levels of expertise of the communicator can also change teachers attitude towards vaccination into an opposite one. This ability increases the value or appeal of the communicators message. This is because the noted expert on a topic seems more convincing and reasonable. So if the teachers are advised to go for vaccination by the highly qualified doctors in the field they are likely to easily go for vaccination.

Use of two sided argument. This works when the audience is well informed and Intelligent, then the communicator must discuss both sides of the issue although emphasizing the side that he favors. For example when sensitizing teachers to go for vaccination they should be told it's negative effects like headache which happens immediately after vaccination and it's greatest advantages and this change their mind set to appositive one.

The primacy effect in communication can also help in changing the mindset of teachers to a positive one. In the order of presentation attitudes are changed which is presented first to the audience. For example teachers can be told first the advantages of being vaccinated before being told other issues thus this can change their mind set towards vaccination.

Use of strong fear arousing appeals. The use of emotional appeals in the communicators argument to persuade the teachers to change their minds this is because they tend to suggest that failure to adapt a certain position will lead to disastrous results for example telling teachers that failure to go for vaccination can make them easily affected by covid-19 and thus leading to death.

High levels of frequency of the exposure to the message. Sometimes repeating the message over and over so that the audience is given a chance to get that message is likely to change their attitude towards doing that thing they're being told about. For example when teachers are advised to go for vaccination via adverts on radios and televisions can easily change their attitude and they end up going for vaccination.

1c) The following are the facets of my tradition branded in the hesitancy of covid-19 vaccination and how they should be demystified.

The presence of local Herbs in my community has contributed to hesitancy for vaccination. People have a believe that in case they are infected by covid-19, they can take local Herbs and be healed. In order to cease this from the minds of the people, the government should take the vaccines to the villages so as to increase it's accessibility and people will be persuaded to be vaccinated.

Some people have a belief that Africans have a strong immunity and they can't easily be affected by covid-19. But this can be erased from the minds of the people by the health workers by telling them that many people are being affected also in blacks so as to erase it

Other people have a belief that these covid-19 vaccines contain microchips and that people who are vaccinated can be tracked every where they go so people at the end refuse to go for vaccination to avoid being tracked. People should know told that vaccines are developed to fight against the disease and not to track people's movements.

Some people have a believe that the vaccine is meant to depopulate Africa as a continent. That's why some people hesitate to go for vaccination because of fear death due to the vaccine administered. But this can be erased from the the minds of the people by telling them people can die even after being vaccinated not because of the covid-19 jab but due to other factors.

Some people do sacrifices to avoid being affected by covid-19 and end up not for vaccination. They do kill animals and eat blood as a sacrifice but this can be erased from the minds of the people by encouraging to go for vaccination not to sacrifice

Believing in regions. Some believe that they can go and pray in their different religions to get away from covid-19 without being vaccinated. But people should be told that this is a disease it kills and can only be fought against using a vaccine.

Some young people belief that it only affects old people so they hesitate to go for vaccination. This can be erased from the minds from the minds of the people by telling them that it affects every one at any age.

Some people have a believe that taking alcohol can help them fight against covid-19 virus. This should be erased from the minds of the people that alcohol is used in sanitizers to kill the virus but not killing that that is already in the body.

1d) An internal memo.



DATE: NOVEMBER, 19th, 2021.


I hereby update you on the state of teacher vaccine hesitancy in Kabarole District which has seriously delayed the presidential directive that before schools reopen, a sizable number of learners, teachers and non-teaching staff should have at least got a COVID-19 Jab.

As an educational and social psychologists, I’m greatly concerned about the delay in administering the vaccines which will lead to lower level of compliance. We are worried about our children who are greatly affected by the closure of schools.

I hope that there will be a follow up on the concerned because our teachers are resistant about it. Thank you.

Compiled by Katusiime Erinah


Our Guest of Honour, the Commissioner Officer, District Inspectors of Schools, Teachers present, Ladies and Gentlemen, I greet you all.

My name is Katusiime Erinah, the executive director, Kabarole District Educational Consultancy. This is a company whose role is to advise the government about how the education standards can be raised. I am greatly humbled to stand amidst such a distinguished gathering. I am here to bring a message of great challenge for the development of our education system.

We are all aware of how the education sector has been constrained by the many challenges. These include teacher and student absenteeism, weak school level management structures, inadequate availability of learning materials, large classes and availability of teachers in disadvantaged areas.

According to my research, in countries like Singapore there has been more funding to the district inspectors of schools in away of motivation for them to manage routine visits in schools to seduce parents through meetings on how they can support their children in school. This can be done through organizing more conferences like this one in order to streamline school management structures

There is a need for more consultation from higher authorities so as to learn what schools are missing as in availability of learning materials are concerned. This makes headteachers accountable for what they have made.

Ladies and gentlemen we are all aware of the problems affecting our education system. Our headteachers always need to communicate to the higher authorities about very few teachers compared to the number of students available which can force the government to recruit more teachers and teachers being posited near their places of residence.

With all the above, the future will be bright, let us look forward to this even where we have been defeated. Let us remember that defeat is not to discourage but to act as a fresh stimulus for a bigger achievement as Shame the president of USA said, ‘’Yes We Can! United We Stand, Divided We Fall.’’